Lipofilling (or fat transfer) is a procedure in which adipose tissue is removed from one anatomical area and implanted in another. It is frequently used to correct the reabsorption of adipose tissue that is typical of facial aging, but it can also be used to increase the volume of other body parts (e.g. the gluteal area) or to correct deformities due to trauma, surgery or congenital malformation. Under local anaesthetic and sometimes medical sedation, fat is removed from an anatomical area through 1-2cm long incisions in the skin using small-diameter cannulae connected to syringes. The fat is most frequently removed from the abdomen, inner knee and thigh, and is then centrifuged to remove residues of serum, blood and oil, thus obtaining pure fat. This is then implanted under the skin in the desired area using small-diameter cannulae (1-2mm). Implantation of large volumes of fat obviously requires use of larger diameter cannulae. The transference of fat from one site to another in the same individual means there is no risk of rejection, and engraftment of the implanted material is around 60%. With this procedure, stem cells are also transferred, which enriches the cellular composition of the implanted area.
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